Array and Enumeration in Structured Text

What is an array:

An array can be defined as an ordered collection of items indexed by contiguous integers. An array is a data structure that can store a number of variables of the same data type in sequence. These similar elements could be of type int, float, double, char,  Function Block, etc.

Arrays are used when there is a need to use many variables of the same type. It can be defined as a sequence of objects which are of the same data type. It is used to store a collection of data, and it is more useful to think of an array as a collection of variables of the same type. Arrays can be declared and used. A programmer has to specify the types of elements and the number of elements that are required by an array. This is called a single-dimensional array. The array size should be an integer constant and greater than zero.

One-, two-, and three-dimensional fields (arrays) are supported as elementary data types. Arrays can be defined both in the declaration part of a POU and in the global variable lists.

In the following statement, we declare an array of 5 integers and initialized them with 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively.

ArrayInt : ARRAY [1..5] OF INT := [1,2,3,4,5];

Look at the syntax ARRAY[lower..upper] OF allows us to define any lower or upper bounds. As compared to C#, our lower bound doesn’t have to be zero. The total number of elements in the array is upper – lower + 1. We could have declared the above statement as the following as well

ArrayInt : ARRAY [2..6] OF INT := [1,2,3,4,5];

In this case, we have accessed first number by  by the following way.

firstOne := ArrayInt[2]; // 1

Now we shall describe, how we can declare an array of FUNCTION_BLOCK

Sample function block

FUNCTION_BLOCK MotorAC
VAR_INPUT
	machineName : WSTRING :="Type A";
END_VAR

VAR_OUTPUT
		machineAlarm : BOOL := FALSE;
END_VAR
VAR		
maxRotationValue : REAL := 0.0;
rotationPerSeconds : INT := 0;
myTimer : TON ;
startMachine : BOOL := FALSE;
END_VAR

We declare and initialize those array of 3 instances in the following way.

ArrayMotorAc : ARRAY [1..3] OF MotorAC := [
(machineName:= "Motor_one"),
(machineName:= "Motor_two"),
(machineName:= "Motor_three")
];

Initialization can be done in the following way.


FOR index := 1 TO number_of_motor DO
    ArrayMotorAc[index].InitMachine();
END_FOR;