A computer network is a set of devices connected through links. A node can be computer, printer, or any other device (for example PLCs) capable of sending or receiving the data to and from the network. Most devices are connected via LAN (local area network). Each LAN can be connected and creates a wider network called WAN.


Hub :

A Hub is a networking device that allows you to connect multiple PCs to a single network. It is used to connect segments of a LAN. A hub stores various ports, so when a packet arrives at one port, it is copied to various other ports. Hub works as a common connection point for devices in a network. 


Router : 

A router is basically a device or hardware which is responsible for receiving, analyzing, and forwarding the data packets to other networks. A router actually determines the destination or the target IP address of the packet and thus the best way for transferring the packet is determined by the help of forwarding tables and headers. 

The forwarding of the data packet is done from one router to the other which basically forms a network(example: internet) until it reaches the final target node. A router is mainly used in the local area network(LAN) and wide area network(WAN) domain. The data is transferred across the network by using the routing protocols. It is much more costly in comparison to other network devices like the hub, switch, etc. 

Some of the companies that develop routers are D-Link, Cisco, Nortel etc. 


Gateway : 

A gateway is basically a device or hardware which acts as a “gate” among the networks. Thus it can also be defined as a node that acts as an entrance for the other nodes in the network. It is also responsible for enabling the traffic flow within the network. Gateway uses more than one protocol for communication thus its activities are much more complex than a switch or a router. 


So a gateway is basically a device that is used for the communication among the networks which have a different set of protocols and is responsible for the conversion of one protocol into the other. For any kind of workplace, the gateway is a computer system that is responsible for routing the traffic from the main workstation to the outside network. For homes, it is responsible for giving access to the internet thus acting as an internet service provider. 

more will come shortly, as we are continuously…